The transition to a future radical agriculture, in the UK and elsewhere, is not utopian or a “distant proposal” but “an unavoidable, immediate, and immense challenge that will call for unprecedented levels of creativity” (Heinberg, 2007). But as we prepare to make our agricultural systems sustainable, so do we have to pay attention to our economy and society. Our methods of food production and distribution and the wider economy are inextricably linked, each mirroring the other. To change one is to change both:
“It is impossible to attain sustainable development of society without a sustainable agricultural sector and the safe food production it produces, and vice versa.” (Wright, 2009: 213)
A future radical agriculture will have to be as decentralised as possible, following the principle of subsidiarity, but rejecting parochialism and regressive localism for a diverse interconnected web of food production, distribution, and consumption. Farms will be smaller and more diverse, with systems of intercropping and polyculture boosting productivity and food security and providing much needed resilience for the years of climate chaos we may face (Lyons, 2015).
It will be renewably powered, minimising the impacts of peak oil and taking advantage of the explosive growth in renewable energy technologies (Steiner, 2015) and the recent predictions that the world’s energy infrastructure could be fully transferred from fossil fuels to renewable energy in a matter of decades (Jacobson and Delucchi, 2010; Schwartzman and Schwartzman, 2011).
It will use as little nonrenewable inputs as possible to ensure the sustainability of the land and its suitability for farming, mimicking ecosystem flows, minimising ecological disturbance, and being “self-regulating and self-renewing” (Warner, 2006: xiii). As Marx said,
“Even a whole society, a nation, or even all simultaneously existing societies taken together, are not the owners of the globe. They are only its possessors, its usufructuaries, and, like boni patres familias, they must hand it down to succeeding generations in an improved condition.” (1894: 546)
It will use agricultural technologies deemed appropriate not by scale but “according to their role in enhancing human freedom and integrating human society with natural processes” à la social ecology (Out of the Woods, 2014), avoiding the nature/society binary. It will combine agroecology and organic farming with “high” technologies such as integrated pest management and vertical farming and culturally “outlandish” techniques such as entomophagy and algae farms.
The agriculture of the future will also be part of an anti-capitalist economic system that recognises the limits to growth (probablyasocialecologist, 2015) and the absurdity of private management of farmland, abolishing the disinformation and speculations of markets (O’Neill, 1998: 153) and recognizing that each and all of us has the right and entitlement to food regardless of contribution, occupation, or identity.
Returning to the beginning, as Dr Bob Scholes told us, the soil of the UK – and elsewhere – is “social property because humankind depends heavily on it for food production”. But with the biocrisis looming with its hydra heads of climate chaos, energy depletion, and perhaps most importantly soil depletion, we have to consider, in the transition to an unknown, fairer future:
“Can mankind regulate its affairs so that its chief possession — the fertility of the soil — is preserved? On the answer to this question the future of civilization depends.” (Howard, 1940: 20)
- Heinberg, R. (2007). What will we eat as the oil runs out? http://www.resilience.org/stories/2007-12-03/what-will-we-eat-oil-runs-out Accessed 6 November 2015.
- Howard, A. (1940). An Agricultural Testament. Oxford University Press, London.
- Jacobson, M. Z. & Delucchi, M. A. (2010). Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power. Energy Policy 39 (3), 1154–1169.
- Lyons, K. (2015). Storm and drought: what Europe has to fear from climate change. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/09/storm-and-drought-what-europe-has-to-fear-from-climate-change Accessed 9 November 2015.
- Marx, K. (1894). Capital, Volume III. https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/download/pdf/Capital-Volume-III.pdf Accessed 6 November 2015.
- O’Neill, J. (1998). The Market: Ethics, Knowledge and Politics. Routledge, London.
- Out of the Woods (2014). Murray Bookchin’s libertarian technics. https://libcom.org/blog/murray-bookchins-libertarian-technics-11032014 Accessed 6 November 2015.
- probablyasocialecologist (2015). The Problem of Green Growth. https://fightingthebiocrisis.wordpress.com/2015/03/02/the-problem-of-green-growth/ Accessed 6 November 2015.
- Schwartzman, P. D. & Schwartzman, D. W. (2011). A Solar Transition is Possible. Institute for Policy Research & Development, London.
- Steiner, A. (2015). ‘The world is finally producing renewable energy at an industrial scale’. http://www.theguardian.com/vital-signs/2015/apr/20/renewable-energy-global-trends-solar-power Accessed 9 November 2015.
- Warner, K.D. (2006). Agroecology in Action: Extending Alternative Agriculture through Social Networks. MIT Press, Cambridge.
- Wright, J. (2009). Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security in an Era of Oil Scarcity. Earthscan, London.