“Learning to honor the wild…means never imagining that we can flee into a mythical wilderness to escape history and the obligation to take responsibility for our own actions that history inescapably entails.” — William Cronon, 1995
We have seen, then, the horrors that await us in a capitalist future. We seem stuck between two hellish paths. One is of climate crisis, of “climate-induced scarcity” and “militarised policing of the class lines” (Out of the Woods, 2014a), and of “increasingly authoritarian forms of state power” to discipline unrest triggered by resource shortages (Steven, 2012). As Davis (2008) warns, “we’re talking here of the prospect of creating green and gated oases of permanent affluence on an otherwise stricken planet”.
The other is of a world disciplined not only by capital but by technocracy, characterised by the concealing of scientific research from the public (Mirowski et al., 2013), of control of weather systems for reasons of national security, and of a wealthy techno-elite patenting geoengineering technologies and profiting off climate inaction (Yusoff, 2013: 2803). In this scenario, “we would have a roof, not a sky – a milky, geoengineered ceiling gazing down on a dying, acidified sea” (Klein, 2014: 260). The idea of human ingenuity solving the problem of climate change with a technical fix without any need for structural change is seductive, especially for those in power (Andersen, 2015).
But this is a false dichotomy. A third way, characterised by anti-capitalism, rational economic management, and a holistic approach to humanity’s place in the earth system, is possible and realisable.
Resistance to state and capitalist failures at addressing the climate crisis is growing (Out of the Woods, 2015). As Battistoni (2012) tells us, “we have to remake the world, and we have to talk about it”, and more importantly act on it. There is hope that the “extraordinary” natural disasters we may face with climate change will lead to the resurgence of “extraordinary communities” (Karlin, 2013), whilst at the same time we combat reactionary, xenophobic attitudes that divert attention to the symptoms of the climate crisis and not the cause (McGrath, 2014; Out of the Woods, 2014b).
The technics we need to mitigate and adapt to a warming world already exist. From agricultural adaptations (McVeigh, 2014; White, 2014) to methods of energy generation (Jacobson & Delucchi, 2010; Saenz, 2012; Grover, 2014) to “appropriate” forms of geoengineering (Lehmann, 2007; Becker et al., 2013; Biggers, 2015). Indeed, “humanity already possesses the fundamental scientific, technical, and industrial know-how to solve the carbon and climate problem for the next half-century” (Pacala and Socolow, 2004) and the “knowledge and physical instruments for promoting a harmonization of humanity with nature…are largely at hand or could easily be devised” (Bookchin, 2005: 83).
But this future is not for certain. In order to maintain the habitability of the earth system (for humans, at least) we will require a fundamental restructuring of politics, economics, and society’s attitude to the nature/human false dichotomy. As Carl Sagan warned,
“We’ve never done such a thing before, certainly not on a global scale. It may be too difficult for us. Dangerous technologies may be too widespread. Corruption may be too pervasive. Too many leaders may be focused on the short term rather than the long.” (1997)
We need to make sure that our descendants do not “one day say that ours was a time of affluence, subsidized by their suffering” (Andersen, 2015). Our choice to embark towards an anti-capitalist and “ecological society” must be predicated upon our ability “to learn from the material lessons of the past and to appreciate the real prospects of the future” (Bookchin, 2003). The concept of “solar communism”, an embodiment of Marx’s dictum “from each according to her ability, to each according to her needs” for both humans and the natural world, is one example of a model society we should strive for (Schwartzman, 2015).
If we succeed then perhaps, as William Cronon concluded twenty years ago, “we can get on with the unending task of struggling to live rightly in the world—not just in the garden, not just in the wilderness, but in the home that encompasses them both” (Cronon, 1995).
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